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Manage Drives

List Drive Information
sudo fdisk -l

List Partition Information
sudo blkid

Partitioning

Partition Drive
sudo parted /dev/[sda|sdb|sdc|etc]

Show Available Space
print free

Show Partitions
print

Remove Partition
rm [Partition Number]

Set MS Dos (≤ 2TB) / GPT (> 2TB)
mklabel [msdos|gpt]

Create Partition (Primary) supported File System Types [ext2|ext4|fat16|fat32|HFS|linux-swap|NTFS|reiserfs|ufs] Chances are you will want to Ignore at the end.
Use 100% to tell parted to use all free space.
mkpart primary

Optionally I find this works for most disks when you want to use the full disk.
2048s sets the start at sector 2048 and the 100% tells parted to use 100% of the disk.
mkpart primary 2048s 100%
To Exit Parted
quit

Formatting Partition

Format ext4
sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/[sda1|sdb2|sdc3|etc]

Change/Create Partition Label
sudo e2label /dev/[sda1|sdb2|sdc3|etc] "[label]"

Mounting

Create Mount Directory
sudo mkdir /[mounthere]

Now Mount (Temporary)
sudo mount /dev/[sda1|sdb2|sdc3|etc] /[mounthere]

Mounting On Startup

Open fstab to add startup mount entries
sudo nano /etc/fstab

Mount Examples

Ext4 Mount By UUID
UUID=123456-7890-1234-5678-123456789012 /mountdir ext4 defaults 0 0
Ext4 Mount By LABEL
LABEL=monster /monster ext4 defaults 0 0
External exFat By LABEL
LABEL=128SD /128sd exfat auto,nofail,rw,exec,sync,umask=000 0 0
External NTFS By LABEL
LABEL=Solo /solo ntfs auto,nofail,rw,exec,sync,umask=000 0 0
Options:
defaults = rw, suid, dev, exec, auto, nouser, async rw = Read & Write ro = Read Only nofail = continue to boot if failed to mount user = allow users to mount nouser = only allow root to mount owner = allow owner to mount auto = mount on boot noauto = do not mount on boot exec = allow file execution noexec = do not allow file execution suid = allow suid nosuid = do not allow suid async = enable write buffering (Do not unplug drive without unmounting first or data may not be committed) sync = write data before continuing umask=000 = full public read, write & execute
NFS Options:
_netdev = adds a flag that tells services that this is a network dependant device soft = faster responses, but may cause data corruption if connection is interupted (like async) hard = slower responses, but waits for the connection to resume if interupted (like sync with continuous retries) timeo = time to give up on a request (hard will retry), 1/10 seconds to a max of 30 (3 Seconds)